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Education Programme for Secondary General Education in the Czech Republic

Dear students, parents!

As you keep asking us, what Czech students study at High school and what you have to know (or your children do) before coming to the Prep. course, we have made a list of topics (Syllabus for Czech secondary grammar schools) according to the Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (Grammar Schools), concept of Research Institute of Education in Prague.


1) Logic and proof
• Basic mathematical knowledge – proposition, definition, theorem, proof
• Sets – set inclusion and equality, operations with sets
• Propositional calculus

2) Number and variable
• Numerical fields – natural numbers, integers, rational numbers and real numbers
• Powers – powers involving natural, integer and rational exponents, radixes
• Terms with variables – polynomials, fractional terms, terms with powers and radixes
• Equations and inequalities – linear equations, inequalities and their systems, quadratic equations (discriminant, relations between roots and coefficients), product and quotient forms of equations and inequalities, equations and inequalities with absolute value, equations with an unknown in the denominator or as a radical; logarithmic, exponential and goniometric equations

3) Working with data, combinatorial analysis, probability
• Combinatorial analysis – elementary combinatorial analysis exercises, variations, permutations and 
combinations (without repetition), binomial theorem, Pascal's triangle
• Probability – random phenomena and their probability, probability of the conflation and intersection of phenomena, independence of phenomena
• Working with data – data analysis and processing in various representations, statistical sets and their properties (weighted arithmetic mean, median, mode, percentile, quartile, standard deviation, inter-quartile deviation)

4) Dependence and functional relations
• General knowledge of functions – the term function, definition scope and range, function graphs, 
function properties
• Function – linear functions, the square-law function; quadratic function, linear fractional function, power functions, square-root function, exponential, logarithmic and goniometric functions, relations between goniometric functions
• Sequence – determination and properties of sequences, arithmetic and geometric sequences

5) Geometry
• Planar geometry – planar figures (classification), circumference and area; congruency and similarity of triangles; the Pythagoras' and Euclid's Theorems; sets of points of a given property; angles in a circle, congruent representations (axial and central symmetry, shift and turn); homothety, constructional exercises
• Spatial geometry – positional and metric properties; basic figures, surface areas and volumes, free parallel projection of planar lines
• Trigonometry – sine and cosine theorems; trigonometry of a right-angle and general triangle
• Analytical planar geometry – vectors and operations with them; analytic representations of a line in 
a plane, conic sections (circle, ellipsis, parabola, hyperbola)


1) Physical quantities and their measurement
• System of physical quantities and units – the International System of Units (SI)
• Absolute and relative measurement deviation

2) Motion of bodies and their interaction
• Kinematics of motion – reference system; body position and its change, velocity and acceleration
• Dynamics of motion – mass and force; First, Second, and Third Laws of Motion, the inertial system; linear momentum of an object; compressive force, pressure; frictional force; elastic force; force of gravity and gravitational force; gravitational fields; moment of force; work, power; the connection between change in mechanical energy and work; the Law of Conservation of Mass, the Law of Conservation of Momentum and the Law of Conservation of Energy
• Mechanical vibrations and waves – vibrations of a mechanical oscillator, their period and frequency; progressive wave motion, standing wave motion, wavelength and wave velocity; sound, sound volume and intensity

3) Composition and properties of substances
• Kinetic theory of matter – character of motion and mutual interactions of particles in various states of matter
• Thermodynamics – thermodynamic temperature; internal energy and its change, heat; the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics; specific heat capacity; various methods of internal energy transfer in different systems
• Properties of matter – normal stress, Hooke's Law; liquid surface tension, capillary phenomena; thermal expansion coefficient of solids and liquids; latent heat and specific latent heat

4) Electromagnetic phenomena; Light
• Electric charge and electric field – electric charge and its conservation; electric field intensity, electric voltage; capacitors
• Electric current in matter – current as a quantity; Ohm's Law for part of a circuit as well as a closed circuit
• Electric resistance; electrical energy and direct current power; semiconductor diode
• Magnetic field – magnetic fields of conductors with current, magnetic induction; induced voltage
• Alternating current – harmonic alternating voltage and current, their frequency; alternating current power; alternating current generator; electromotor; transformer
• Electromagnetic radiation – electromagnetic wave; electromagnetic radiation spectrum
• Wave properties of light – propagation and speed of light in various media; constancy of the speed of light in inertial systems and some outcomes of this law; the Laws of Reflection and Refraction, the refractive index; the visible spectrum, light interference
• Optical imaging – reflection imaging on a planar and spherical mirror; imaging by refraction through thin lenses; visual angle; the eye as an optical system; magnifying glass

5) The microscopic world
• Quanta and waves – the photon and its energy; corpuscular-wave nature of radiation and microparticles
• Atoms – quantisation of electron energy in atoms; spontaneous and stimulated emission, laser; nuclear energy; synthesis and splitting of atom nuclei; chain reactions, nuclear reactors


1) General chemistry
• Systems of substances and their composition
• Quantities and calculations in chemistry
• Atomic structure
• The periodic table of elements
• Chemical bonds and properties of substances
• Temperature changes in chemical reactions
• Rates of chemical reactions and chemical equilibrium

2) Inorganic chemistry
• Hydrogen and its compounds
• S-elements and their compounds
• P-elements and their compounds
• D- and f-elements and their compounds

3) Organic chemistry
• Hydrocarbons and their classification
• Hydrocarbon derivatives and their classification
• Heterocyclic compounds
• Synthetic macromolecular substances
• Drugs, pesticides, colouring agents and detergents

4) Biochemistry
• Lipids
• Saccharides
• Proteins
• Nucleic acids
• Enzymes, vitamins and hormones


1) General biology
• Origin and development of living systems; evolution
• Cell – structure and function

2) Viral biology
• Structure and function of viruses

3) Bacterial biology
• Structure and function of bacteria

4) Protist biology
• Structure and function of protists

5) Fungal biology
• Structure and function of fungi
• Structure and function of lichens

6) Plant biology
• Plant morphology and anatomy
• Plant physiology
• Plant system and evolution
• Plants and their environment

7) Animal biology
• Animal morphology and anatomy
• Animal physiology
• Animal system and evolution
• Animals and their environment
• Ethology

8) Human biology
• Support and movement systems
• Metabolism systems
• Regulatory systems
• Reproductive systems

9) Genetics
• Molecular and cellular fundamentals of heredity
• Heredity and mutability
• Human genetics
• Population genetics

10) Ecology
• Basic ecological terms
• Conditions for life
• Biosphere and its structure


1) Natural environment
• The Earth as a celestial body – shape and motions of the Earth, impact of the Earth's motion on the life of Man 
and organisms, on the alternation of day and night, change of seasons, time zones on the Earth, the calendar
• Physiological area – mutual relations and connections between parts of the physiological area, the basic principles and development of the parts of the physiological area, impact on the natural environment
• The system of the physiological area at the planetary and regional levels – objects, phenomena, processes, zonality, azonal phenomena

2) Social environment
• Population – basic geographic, demographic, ethnic and economic characteristics
• Cultural and political environment – population structure, system of government, geopolitical processes, main global flashpoints of conflict
• Settlements and habitation – settlement structure and its development, settlement, municipality, town and their functions
• The global economy – location factors, sector and industrial structure and their consequences
• Socio-economic sphere – socio-geographic systems, geographic aspects of wealth and poverty, globalisation

3) Environment
• Landscape – landscape development, natural environment, social environment, development in land utilisation, cultural landscape, environmental science, landscape (geographical) ecology, types of landscape, landscape potential
• Course of the interaction between nature and society – spatial coexistence, sustainable development (life), limits of the natural environment, global problems of mankind, educational, economic, and legal means of the protection of nature and environmental protection

4) Regions
• Local region – possibilities for development in a micro-region, strategic and territorial planning
• Czech Republic – the economic and political position of the Czech Republic in Europe and in the world, the characteristics of the population and settlements, processes of economic transformation, structure of the economy, regions and Euroregions
• Macro-regions of the world – centres, peripheries, model region – model problems with an emphasis on Europe and the European Union

5) Geographical information and field trip education
• Geographic cartography and topography – practical application of cartographic products, maps of various function, cartograms
• Geographic and cartographic terminology – widely used terms, cartographic symbols, legends, statistical data, other information, communication and documentary geographical data sources
• Geographic information and navigational systems – Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing of the Earth (RSE), practical application of GIS, RSE as well as of GPS (the Global Positioning System) satellite navigation devices
• Field geographic education, practice and application – geographical excursions and field exercises, practical topography, orientation, safety of activity and sleeping in the open, methods of observing, depicting and evaluating natural and social landscape features and their interactions


1) Man as an individual
• Nature of the human psyche – consciousness; mental phenomena, processes, states and characteristics
• Human personality – personality traits, their typology; development and formation of personality in the individual stages of human life; significance of lifelong learning and self-education
• Psychology in everyday life – decisions on life issues; principles of mental health, difficult life situations, the system of psychological counselling

2) Man in society
• Man in his relation to society – significance of the inclusion of an individual into social ties, socialisation process; interpersonal communication, problems in interpersonal relations
• Social structure of society – social units, social institutions; social inequality, social mobility; an individual in a group (relations, roles, behavioural norms)
• Social phenomena and processes – family, work, mass media, the surroundings; social deviation, social problems (unemployment, criminality, extremism)

3) Citizens in a state
• State – symbols and functions, forms of state, legal state; the Constitution of the Czech Republic – overview of principal provisions
• Democracy – principles and forms; civil rights and obligations, nature of civic society, its institutions; political parties, political life in the state; elections, election systems; authorities
• Human rights – embodiment of human rights in documents; violation and protection of human rights, functions of ombudsman
• Ideology – symbols and functions, overview of selected ideologies

4) Citizens and the law
• Law and justice – the purpose and object of law; ethics and law
• Law in everyday life – legal personality, legal capacity; body of laws of the Czech Republic – its organisation; legal system, types of legal norms; contracts, their significance and content, general contractual terms and conditions
• Institutions of legal protection – functions and duties, legal professions; purpose and course of civil proceedings; bodies participating in penal proceedings, their duties; system of legal counselling, activities and duties of civic counselling centres

5) International relations; the global world
• European integration – nature and significance; the European Union – importance; integration process; 
EU authorities; common European currency
• International cooperation – reasons, importance and advantages; significant international organisations and associations – CE, NATO, UN, their purpose and scope of activity
• Globalisation process – causes, manifestations, consequences; global problems

6) Introduction to philosophy and religious studies
• Principles of philosophy – basic philosophical questions, the relations of philosophy and myth, philosophy and religion, philosophy and science, and philosophy and art
• Philosophy in history – key stages and movements of philosophical thought
• Faith in human life – forms of faith, signs of religious faith; religious systems, Churches; sects

7) Industrial relations
• Labour law – legal terms and conditions related to the start of work, change in work status and termination of employment (contract, trial period, giving and receiving notice, severance pay); rights and obligations of the participants in industrial relations (working hours, disability, wage, minimum wage, bonuses), trade unions
• Occupational safety – principles of occupational safety, ecological aspects of work, occupational accident and compensation

8) Market economics
• Basic economic terminology – types of economies, economic cycle, market mechanism, supply, demand, 
price formation and global economic questions
• Economic entities – legal forms of enterprise (trade, types of company, cooperatives), the basic legal norms related to enterprise
• Marketing – marketing and public relations, advertising, advertising agencies


1) Introduction to history studies
• Significance of historical knowledge for the present
• Historian's work, historical information, its types, purpose and possible applications

2) Prehistory
• The Stone Age (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic), Bronze Age and Iron Age

3) Antiquity
• Ancient Oriental states (Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China)
• Ancient Greece
• Ancient Rome
• Our lands and the rest of Europe in Roman times; civilisation and barbarism, the Limes Romanus as the boundary of Western civilisation

4) Middle Ages
• The formation of mediaeval Europe (the Byzantine-Slavonic area, the Frankish Empire and the area of Western, Eastern and Southern Europe)
• Islam and the Arab Empire, Mongolian and Turkish expansions
• Christianity as a new cultural and social link, internal disunity within Christianity, the Catholicism and Imperialism, the Crusades, heresy and Hussitism
• Countryside and agriculture, colonisation; the development of crafts and trade, urbanisation
• Education and art in mediaeval society

5) Early Modern Period
• The Renaissance and Humanism; the Reformation
• Transoceanic voyages
• Rivalry and cooperation between European powers in the Early Modern Period; the Thirty Years' War
• Absolutism and estatism
• Baroque culture, politics, religion

6) The Enlightenment; revolution and the idea of freedom; modernisation of society
• The Enlightenment
• Great revolutions – the French Revolution 1789–1799, foundation of the USA, the revolutions of 1848
• Europe during the Napoleonic Wars and after the Congress of Vienna
• Development of manufacturing and science, transformation of agrarian society into industrial society, changes in social structure
• Formation of modern national societies (Czech, Slovak, German, Italian); emancipation movements of social groups
• The prerequisites for imperialistic (power and colonial) policy of the superpowers and its manifestations; Russia's becoming a European superpower; the USA, its internal development and international position before World War I
• Mutual conflicts of superpowers, diplomatic and military activities on the eve of World War I, non- -European flashpoints of colonial conflicts
• Transformations of lifestyle, education and art of the 'Belle Époque' period at the turn of the 20th century

7) Modern Period I (1914-1945)
• World War I, the Czech Lands during WWI, the First Resistance
• Revolution in Russia, consolidation of the power of the Bolsheviks
• The Versailles System and its internal contradictions
• The establishment of Czechoslovakia, Czechoslovakia in the interwar period
• Europe and the World in the 1920s and 1930s, the Great Depression in the World and in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the increase of international tension and beginnings of the war flashpoints
• Culture of the first half of the 20th century (the birth of modern art, rise of mass culture, sport)
• World War II (global and economic character of the war, science and technology as means for conducting war, the Holocaust), the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Second Resistance

8) Modern Period II – contemporary history
• Europe and the Post-War World (the UN, principles of the social state)
• The Eastern Block, its political, economic and social development; the USSR as a world power; Comecon, the Warsaw Pact
• Euro-Atlantic cooperation and the development of democracy; the USA as a world power
• Living standards on both sides of the 'Iron Curtain'
• Conflicts in the Middle East, the birth of the state of Israel
• Decolonisation; the 'Third World' and its modernisation processes – economic, demographic and political positions in the global world
• The fall of the Communist regimes and its consequences; integrating Europe and its position in the global world
• Global problems of modern society


1) Digital technologies
• Information science – the definition of both theoretical and applied information science
• Hardware – the function of ICT facilities, their parts and peripherals, technological innovations, data digitisation and representation
• Software – operating-system and program-application functions, user environment
• Information networks – network typology, internet, network services and protocols, data transmission
• The digital world – digital technologies and their possible applications in practice
• Data maintenance and preservation – file and folder administration, compression, antivirus protection, firewall, data backup
• Ergonomics, hygiene and safety when working with ICTs – health protection, the possible use of ICT tools by handicapped people

2) Information resources and searching; communication
• The internet – the global character of the internet, multicultural and language aspects, services on the internet
• Information – data and information, relevance, the trustworthiness of information, specialised terminology, information sources, information processes, information systems
• Sharing specialised information – discussion groups, e-conferences, e-learning
• Information ethics, legislation – protection of copyright and personal data

3) Information processing and presentation
• Publishing – forms of documents and their structures, the principles of graphic and typographic 
modifications in a document, basic aesthetic principles in publishing
• Application software for work with information – text editors, spreadsheets, graphics editors, databases, presentation software, multimedia, modelling and simulation, data export and import
• Algorithmic treatment of problems – algorithm, writing algorithm, introduction to programming


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